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A Religion for White Racists
"Christian Identity" is the name of a religious movement uniting many of the
white supremacist groups in the United States. Identity's teachers promote
racism and sometimes violence. Their roots are deeply embedded in movements such
as the Ku Klux Klan and the Nazis. They consider themselves true Israel and view
the Jews as half-devils and arch enemies. They believe all but the white race
are inferior creations. Identity's religious views are bizarre and occultic, and
their view of history is often informed by conspiracy theories. Identity's use
of the name "Christian" to promote racism and violence is blasphemous. Jesus
Christ as redeemer of all races is God's supreme answer to Identity's outrageous
The headline read "Separatist Surrenders in Idaho." The story was about Randy
Weaver, a man indicted for selling two sawed-off shotguns to undercover
federal agents. During the FBI's attempt to force Weaver to leave his Idaho home
and return to court, three people were killed: a federal agent and Weaver's wife
and son. When the standoff was over, 15 handguns, shotguns, and rifles were
collected from his cabin. Randy Weaver is a member of a religious movement
called "Christian Identity." This "Christian" wing of the larger white
supremacist movement is composed of adherents who variously give allegiance to
the burning cross of the Ku Klux Klan and the sun sign -- the twisted swastika
-- of the Neo-Nazis.
The movement, also called "Israel Identity," has become the uniting force
among many white supremacist groups. Included in most religious teaching
produced by its leaders are racist statements that echo the statements of other
white supremacists. The most moderate groups publish hate literature; the more
radical groups turn to violence, including murder. Among those attracted to
Identity in recent years are racist and violent young "skinheads" -- some of
whom were a part of the crowd of three hundred people who chanted racial slurs
at federal marshals attempting to capture Weaver.
Although Identity groups are small in number and diverse, their penchant for
social agitation attracts widespread media attention. The recent discovery that
racist groups in the United States are supplying both literature and
organizational help to racist groups in Germany is of concern to the whole
Western world. One article by the Associated Press states that "violent acts
perpetrated by far-right German extremists rose from 270 in 1990 to 1,483 last
year, mostly attacks on foreigners." The article goes on to say that "police
investigating KKK activities in Germany raided some 30 buildings in May."
Not understanding the violent and racist nature of Identity, Christians
sometimes connect with this movement because of Identity's espousal of issues
such as right-to-life and anti-Communism. Because of this vulnerability it is
important for Christians to know and understand Identity's false and racist
teachings. For the sake of non-Christians, it is also important for Christians
to differentiate between biblical Christianity and Identity. Finally, it is the
moral duty of Christians to stand against the evil intent of this form of white
supremacist teaching. It is to further each of these three purposes that this
article has been written.
The Jew as the Great Enemy
Identity adherents believe they are the only descendants of Adam and the only
chosen descendants of Abraham. This is the reason for the name Identity -- they
are convinced they know their true identity. They believe they are members of
the supposed ten lost tribes of Israel. Identity adherents of today would
include the British, Germanic, and Scandinavian peoples as those comprising the
tribes of lost Israel. On the other hand, the Jew has for them become the great
enemy. This insistence on singling out Jewish people as the enemy of the white
race is the Identity movement's most clear link to Adolf Hitler and his
Nazi ideas. The more extreme groups believe in what is referred to as the
"serpent seed" teaching that Eve and Satan had sexual intercourse and produced
Cain, starting a line of half-devil people. For many Identity groups this
imagined half-devil line of Cain is the Jewish race.
Pastor Arnold Murray, an Identity preacher from Gravette, Arkansas, calls
them "Kenites" (an Old Testament people he identifies as "Cainites") and
believes they were associated with Judah until they took over leadership of that
tribe. These "Jews" were the people who killed Christ. Pastor Murray teaches
that calling the Jews the chosen people of God is the gravest of sins. He says,
"Bless your heart if you have ever been deceived by the Kenite, and I am
speaking now on the spiritual level, if you have ever really believed that group
was the chosen of God you were deceived by Satan. Repent of that even more so
than your personal sins in the personal sense."
Some other Identity teachers believe the Jews are children of Satan only in a
figurative sense. But this really does not change their attitude toward Jewish
people -- their statements about the Jews still reflect a deep hatred. One
writes about the Jew: "We know that as a race, they have the sly characteristics
of the serpent...We know they have intimidated and imposed their will on our own
government and every government in the nations of Christendom, through their
dominance of finance, government, church, education, and the media." In this
scenario, a political position begins to emerge: the Jews are placed in a
position of conspirators with Satan to take dominion over the world. In an awful
reversal of their biblical role, the true Jewish people are now cast as the
archenemy of God and humanity. Claiming the sacred history and the sacred Book
for themselves, Identity teachers remove all that is a part of the Jew's
Racism: The Basis of Identity Teaching
Racial bigotry extends far beyond the Jews in Identity teaching. Since the
white race alone has descended from Adam, the other races are viewed as a prior
creation. They insist that Genesis 1:24, which describes the creation of animals
and is prior to the creation of Adam, includes a description of all nonwhite
races. In that list of created beings -- "cattle and creeping things and beasts
of the earth" -- they single out the word beast as a description of other races.
This of course means they believe the other races are inferior. All Identity
teachers refer to the word beast to explain how other races escaped the flood;
they were included among the creatures that Noah and his sons rounded up for the
Because Identity teachers hold that the other races are of a different
creation, they consider interracial marriage a sin. Identity teachers insist
that interracial marriage was the cause of God's judgment on the people of
Noah's time. Consistent with this twisted view of Scripture, they believe that
to marry someone of another race is treason to one's own race. Pastor
Pete Peters of La Porte, Colorado informs us that he teaches his children to
never marry a person of another race. He adds: "I teach them also that if they
ever did such a thing -- never to come around my house with their mate or their
half-breed children because they've been traitors to their own sires." Some
teachers -- such as Richard Butler and his Aryan Nations, and Dan Gayman and his Church of Israel -- see the black race as
aliens and cohorts with Satan, and all other races as creatures who, like
animals, have no spirits. In the fantasy world of extreme Identity, when Lucifer
rebels he uses spacecraft and fights battles against God with the help of beings
from other planets. The alien beings are forced to earth according to one tape:
"For the fleet...came to earth like crumpled birds and...some survived
and...some were wiped out....the dark and curly-headed ones never before seen
upon the earth, the coming of the Negroid race."
Although Arnold Murray affirms that all the other races are good, he offers
the public, without apology, the book Tracing Our Ancestors by Frederick
Haberman. Haberman writes: "It must be noticed that there is a great difference
between the three principal races of mankind...and there exists little
relationship between the three. The white race were unquestionably the last
comers, being in every way superior to the other two and constituting their
leaders and teachers." Pastor Murray also teaches that even among Christians
the different races should have no fellowship. All Identity groups certainly
see the white race ruling over the other races.
Identity's Racist History
Racism as Science and History.
Many of Identity's racist ideas can be traced to the late 18th and early 19th
centuries. Esoteric sounding theories, propagated by intellectuals and college
professors of the day, were used to prove the inferiority of some races. These
theories have been disproved by modern scholarship but are kept alive by the
racist of today. One of the terms common to such theories was physiognomy, an
ancient method for determining human character by the study of facial features.
This included comparing those features to animal ones. Also, many historians
of the time were highly nationalistic and, therefore, prone to write with a high
regard for the white race.
Another form of racism developed along religious and nationalistic lines. The
growing concern of the peoples in the West (including the United States) with
their own national interest led to some strange ideas about national identity.
In the United States a theory called "Manifest Destiny" evolved. That view
included the understanding that it was the nation's God-given destiny to expand
from the east coast to the west coast, and perhaps even to the southern end of
Mexico. In England another movement began that would later blend well with the
Manifest Destiny ideas held by some in the United States. This religious
movement was nationalistic, assigning religious worth more to race than to
The movement, Anglo-Israelism, began in 1870. It was founded by the Rev. John
Wilson, a nonconformist minister who expounded the idea that the Anglo-Saxons
were the supposed ten lost tribes of Israel. Believing the nations of western
Europe and the United States to be God's chosen people, they expected them to
receive all the promises God gave to Israel in the Old Testament.
Mr. Edward Hine brought the Anglo-Israelism movement to the United States in
1870, the same year the movement began in England. His efforts were mostly
unfruitful, but his book, Identification of the British Nation with Lost Israel,
is still used by adherents of Identity in the United States. Hine's book was
first among a spate of Anglo-Israel literature published in the U. S. --
including a periodical published by Yale Professor Charles A. L. Totten called,
Our Race, Its Origins and Its Destiny. Today, with few exceptions (the
Worldwide Church of God being one), most adherents of Anglo-Israelism are in the
The Turn toward Violence
Extreme racism entered Anglo-Israelism because some of its most prominent
adherents were also connected to the Ku Klux Klan, and the Klan in turn had
become interested in the Nazis. The KKK was born, without overt racist
intentions, in 1867. Thomas F. Gossett, author of Race: The History of an Idea
in America, notes that "the Klan originated as a lark among young men in
southern Tennessee who -- so the story goes -- chose this method of visiting
their sweethearts attired in their version of the costume of Knights of old and
discovered accidentally that they were terrifying the Negroes." The Klan
grew in its attempt to control black people during the Reconstruction period.
The methods included "assassination, whipping, tarring and feathering." The
Klan during the 1920s added the Jew and Catholic to their list of enemies in an
attempt to attract more members. By 1923 membership had reached between three
and six million people. Decline came with the depression of the 1930s and also
with the Ku Klux Klan's overtures to the American arm of the Nazi party before
the Second World War.
The merging of Klan and Nazi extremism into the Anglo-Israelism movement --
which then produced the Identity movement -- can largely be traced to one man:
Wesley Swift. However, it was not Swift but Howard B. Rand (whose writings are
published by Destiny Publishers) who first coined the term Identity. According
to James Coates, Rand's intention was "to describe Hine's concept of
Anglo-Israelism, in which Jesus was not a Jew of the tribe of Judah but an Aryan
of the ten lost tribes of Israel and an ancestor of the present British,
Germanic and Scandinavian people."
Wesley Swift was a prolific speaker and his tapes and written messages are
frequently used by Identity speakers. His connections to the Nazism of Hitler's
Germany are unquestionable. Swift was at one time both a friend and advance man
for Gerald L. K. Smith, a racist whose radical career began when he joined the
"Silver Shirts," an American Nazi group formed by William Pelley. James Ridgeway,
author of Blood in the Face (a "who's-who of hate"), notes that "with Pelley as
their 'Chief,' the Silver Shirts openly supported Hitler, cooperated with the
pro-Nazi German-American Bund, and embarked on a program of vicious
Swift was also a member of the Ku Klux Klan when he founded the Identity
Church of Jesus Christ Christian in 1946. Richard Butler, who was led into the
Identity movement by Wesley Swift, inherited Swift's church and founded an
Identity compound called the Aryan Nations, located near Hayden Lake, Idaho.
Butler is an advocate of Nazism, and his yearly Aryan Nations meetings attract
Klan members, Nazi groups, and skinheads. Some Identity teachers, although
racist, reject Nazism in name, attributing its cause to the Jews. This trend has
started a new controversy within the ranks of Identity. The Identity groups who
reject Nazism also do so because they are perceptive enough to recognize
Nazism's ingrained hatred of true Christianity.
Identity's Spiritual History
The list of spiritual influences touching Identity resembles a religious
vanity fair. The Neo-Nazi movement embraces the zodiac of astrology as easily as
it does the teaching of the quietest mystic Madame Guyon. Its teachers write
against the New Age movement while embracing occultist Edgar Cayce. They also
welcome the deliverance ministries (those ministries that specialize in the
controversial practice of casting demons out of Christians) while embracing the
world of the occult.
Some of the groups that reject Nazism seem to feature less occult teaching
within their published material. However, except for racist literature, occult
teachings have probably had the greatest influence on most Identity groups and
individuals. This may have partly developed from prewar occultic German groups
that were also anti-Semitic. German cults such as the Alder and Falken and the
Geusen worshiped the sun. And one influence on Hitler was a group whose emphasis
on German nationality was connected to their interest in the Druids -- an
ancient pagan people many Identity groups also embrace.
Wesley Swift used occult legends as "truths" in his sermons. His bizarre
teachings included stories about Atlantis and Lemuria, fictional civilizations
included in most occult philosophy. Identity teachers of today such as Pastor
Arnold Murray maintain that the great Pyramid was built by the Israelites and is
a second revelation of God. The idea that the measurements of the pyramid are
encoded with a revealed message is occultic, since the message is both
supernaturally given and esoteric, known only by those initiated into that
knowledge. Identity also embraces astrology and occultic tales of Jesus visiting
Other Streams of Religious Influence
Because many Identity adherents are people with a history of looking for "new
truths," they often come to Identity from other religious movements, bringing
some of their unique doctrines with them. Thus the teachings of several smaller
religious groups have been added to the racist teachings of Identity. These
include the Sacred Name movement (using only Yahweh for God and Yehoshua or some
equivalent for Jesus); Jesus Only teaching (the belief that there are not three
persons in the Godhead, only three offices); and the fringe teachings of the
"manifest sons of God" (the expectation that an elite group of the church will
deliver creation, overcome death, and help God bring in the kingdom). A few
people came out of the restoration and charismatic movements and added their
unique doctrines to Identity. The restoration movement teaches that God is
restoring lost doctrines to the church. Utilizing this framework, the Identity
teachers include Identity as one of the lost doctrines. (It is important to
point out that although Identity teachers variously link Identity to the above
movements and teachings, properly speaking these movements have nothing to do
The Bonding Link of Conspiracy
The Identity stand against the Jews as a people without value who are enemies
of the white race aligns the movement with other groups that feed constantly on
conspiracy theories, including ones that are Nazi without teaching
Anglo-Israelism. This taste for anti-Semitism is most responsible for the
intermingling of Identity, Neo-Nazi, and other racist groups. Different groups
will often use the same speakers at their various churches and survivalist
camps. And individual members of different groups will order the same books from
For instance, many Identity groups offer books by E. Raymond Capt and also
use him as a speaker, since his specialty is supposedly archaeology and history.
Capt's writing includes such books as Stonehenge and Druidism and The Traditions
of Glastonbury: The Silent Years of Jesus between 12 and 30. Another speaker
used by most groups is Lt. Col. Jack Mohr, whose specialty is anti-Communism.
Mohr offers such tapes as "Background to Betrayal: How America Has Been Betrayed
by Zionists Both Jewish and Christian." Many racist groups, including Identity
groups, sell or refer to the book, Protocols of the Elders of Zion. This
fraudulent book is supposedly a document of conspiracy by Jewish leaders to take
over the world.
Most conspiracy theories have developed from a particular fear -- and the
need to master that fear, by identifying a cause and then supposedly gaining
control of the situation. For instance, the cause of the Black Plague in the
Middle Ages was attributed to the Jew. The solution espoused was to kill or
remove the Jews. Then the plague would supposedly end. The disastrous condition
of Germany after the First World War was attributed to the Jew by some fearful
Germans. Eventually their evil solution brought about the Holocaust. And while
the John Birch Society changed most of the leading players in their conspiracy
theory to what they call the "insiders" rather than Jews, many others still see
the Jew as the monster controlling world events. For these anti-Semites the Jew
is often referred to as the "International Banker."
All of these groups together, both Identity and non-Identity white
supremacist, hold a dangerous sociopolitical view. Their mutual solution to this
supposed "Jewish control" is a race war. This war is considered by many Identity
teachers to be the last great battle, Armageddon.
According to these teachers, at the head of this conspiracy that leads to the
final battle is ZOG: Zionist Occupation Government. Zionist Occupation
Government simply means to Identity adherents that the Jewish conspiracy has
taken over the government of the United States. Since they also believe that
Jewish leaders are using other races to destroy the white race, the final battle
pits the white race against virtually all others. And, because they constantly
feed on conspiracy theories that involve those whose beliefs or politics oppose
their own, Identity's political and religious opposites are also considered
their enemies. Furthermore, they do not have to love their enemies because they
consider most of them subhuman.
The Parasitic Existence of Identity
The farm crisis is an important source for Identity propaganda. Using such
tapes as "A Biblical Look at the Farm Problem," they prey on farmers who are
losing their farms. Some Identity teachers are suggesting that ZOG or the
Jews are behind the loss of the farms. They have managed to pull a few farmers
into the movement through these tactics. This kind of parasitic existence is
typical of Identity extremism. They appeal to other conservatives concerning
such issues as AIDS, abortion, and prison reform. This is where some Christians
have been pulled into the circle of Identity.
Many Christians find they are facing a bewildering morass of social problems.
For some this has led to a deeper understanding of God's sovereignty, and a
greater dependence on His grace and mercy to sinners. For others there is the
enticing reach for the quick answer. And this has meant a return to philosophies
that are void of grace. At this point it is possible for the bits and pieces of
Identity to seep in. Christians who are far from Identity's blatant racism
nonetheless allow Identity's attitudes and world view -- including conspiracy
theories -- to touch the core of their faith. Turning to ideas, news sources,
and leaders who lack an understanding of the true gospel, these Christians
accept into their beliefs and their publications concepts that are not biblical.
God's Answer to Racism
The psalmist wrote, "Thy word I have treasured in my heart, that I may not
sin against thee" (Ps. 119:11). A lack of biblical teaching in differing ages
has often opened the door for both heresy and sin within the Christian
In the Nazi era a great deal of Old Testament Scripture had already been
rejected by many liberal scholars, mainly in Germany. Unlike the Identity
movement of today, which accepts all of the Bible as inspired, the Nazis who
considered themselves "Christian" were able to divorce the Jewish foundation of
Christianity by simply disconnecting Christianity from both the Old Testament
and Paul. Most of the "German Christians" -- those loyal to Hitler -- based
their religious views on a kind of nationalistic nonsectarian ethic.
Franklin Littell, Professor of Religion at Temple University, points out that
this German understanding of Christianity was not unlike John Birch Society
founder Robert Welch's "ecstatic affirmation of non-sectarian religion," found
in Welch's The Blue Book. Littell writes: "The 'German Christians' were at least
logical enough to press the religion of the ethnic base, infused with
spirituality, to its logical conclusion: Antisemitism." The point is:
without a biblical basis, without Jesus Christ as Lord, any religion, even one
named Christian -- especially one named Christian, can produce gross evil.
Although the religious teachers of "Christian Identity" do not reject the Old
Testament or Paul, they distort and twist Scripture until little is left of
God's revelation of good news. The Identity teachers' conclusion that the
British, Scandinavian, and Germanic peoples are the lost tribes of Israel is a
case in point. None of the tribes of Israel have been lost. While many of the
northern tribes of Israel -- carried into exile by Assyria -- intermarried with
the peoples they lived among, there is no biblical reference that would
encourage this teaching of lost tribes.
Christ's statement that He "was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of
Israel" (Matt. 15:24) is not a reference to tribes that had physically
disappeared, but to a people who were lost in sin. Earlier in the text Jesus had
sent His twelve disciples "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt.
10:6), and the disciples did not need to search for the people they were sent to
help. After the captivity of the Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Babylonian
captivity of the Southern Kingdom of Judah, all twelve tribes -- whether living
outside of the homeland or within the homeland -- were referred to as both Jews
and Israel. Both the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah, books about the
return of God's people to Jerusalem after their captivity, use the two terms,
Jews and Israel, to refer to the same people (e.g., Ezra 2:26; 4:12; Neh. 1:6;
Paul refers to himself as both a Jew and an Israelite. Writing of God's
enduring of the "vessels of wrath" for the sake of those He would show mercy to,
he notes: "And He did so in order that He might make known the riches of His
glory upon the vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory, even
us, whom He also called, not from among Jews only, but also from among Gentiles"
(Rom. 9:23-24). In the same chapter he writes: "For I could wish that I myself
were accursed, separated from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen
according to the flesh, who are Israelites" (Rom. 9:3-4). Luke in the second
chapter of Acts records the fact that Jerusalem was filled at Pentecost with
Jews from many lands, and when Peter addresses them he refers to them as "men of
Israel." Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman that "we worship that which we
know, for salvation is from the Jews" (John 4:22), not only calling Himself a
Jew but pointing her toward the Jewish people, whom God had chosen to bless the
world through the promised Messiah.
Once the error of Anglo-Israelism is exposed it leaves the Identity believer
in a very damning position -- Identity adherents are not the chosen people,
rather they are the ones attacking the chosen people, the Jews. And they are
also the ones ranting against the true church of Christ. They are, in fact,
attacking God, for their attempt to relegate other races to an earlier and
inferior creation is an attack on the love of God, as well as the image of God
in all humanity. It is the image of God in humans that sets them apart from all
other creatures and prepares the way for Christ to take unto Himself human flesh
and redeem people of all races. The biblical themes of redemption, the
Incarnation, and the unity of humanity ("every nation and race") are constantly
blended together in Scripture.
When Paul preached to the Athenians on Mars Hill he appealed to their common
humanity as creations of the true God when he stated: "And He made from one,
every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined
their appointed times, and the boundaries of their habitation, that they should
seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far
from each one of us" (Acts 17:26-27). Genesis 10:1-32 names most of the nations
that developed from the three sons of Noah. Derek Kidner, author of Genesis in
the Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, writes: "Not every nation known to the
Old Testament is enrolled here, but enough are present to make the point that
mankind is one, for all its diversity, under the one creator. Possibly the
seventy names (Lxx 72) influenced our Lord's choice of this apparently symbolic
number of emissaries in Luke 10:1."
Jesus Christ is God's answer to racism. Paul admonishes the Galatians that
they are to make no distinctions among those belonging to Christ; they are to be
as one: "For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves
with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free
man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus"
(Gal. 3:27-28). In the Book of Revelation, where Christ is pictured as both "the
Lion that is from the tribe of Judah" and "a Lamb standing, as if slain," the 24
Elders sing to His glory: "For Thou wast slain, and didst purchase for God with
Thy blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation. And thou hast
made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God; and they will reign upon the
earth" (Rev. 5:9-10).
The church, those redeemed not by race but by the blood of Christ the Lamb,
understand Christ as both lion and lamb, both sacrifice and King. Wilhelm
Niemoller, one of the members of the Confessing Church in Germany during the
time of Hitler, wrote of what it meant to confess Christ as the only Lord under
that regime: "One of my friends concluded a sermon of his in 1934 or 1935 by
saying: 'O Lord, Thou alone art our hope, apart from Thee, I know none!' He was
arrested, put on trial, and later released. The enemies that listened to him had
noticed that the Third Reich was put in a difficult position wherever the 'One
Word of God' made its appearance." The Neo-Nazi groups and those who feed on
their hate literature are simply a part of the rising paganism in America. They
are also an extreme example of groups who like to use Christian terminology
while laying foundations on extrabiblical revelation. The need for present
security, elitism, power, and a revelation not anchored in Christ and the Word
of God is the mark of anti-Christian religion.
The believer's only haven is Christ. This means there is no present worldly
security -- the believer is not an elite person. Instead, members of Christ's
church are often the ones hated and despised by the nations. The only power
given is that which Christ gives, so that His followers may be able to
faithfully love, serve, and suffer in this present world. Finally, the believer
finds racial pride to be sin, because the only exaltation a Christian knows is
God's unmerited grace, freely offered to all in Jesus Christ.
Previously the director of Apologetics Resource Center,
Sacramento, California, Viola Larson is a graduate student in history at
California State University, Sacramento.
1. John E. Yang, "Separatist Surrenders in Idaho," Sacramento Bee, 1
September 1992, part A.
2. "U.S. Hate Groups Spread Their Venom to Germany," Sacramento Bee, 14
August 1992, part A.
4. Arnold Murray, Grace: Baptism (cassette #406) (Gravette, AR: Shepherd's
5. Jack Mohr, "Seed of Satan: Literal or Figurative?" (Louis, MI: n.p., n.d.)
6. Pete Peters, Inter-Racial Marriage, part l (cassette 170) (La Porte, CO:
Scriptures for America, n.d.).
7. Wesley Swift, Dwellers in the Deep (cassette 350) (Waynesville, NC: New
8. Federick Haberman, Tracing Our Ancestors (n.p., n.d.), 10. Reference is
made within the book to Hitler in Germany, dating the book sometime before World
9. Murray, Grace: Baptism.
10. Thomas F. Gossett, Race: The History of an Idea in America (New York:
Schocken Books, 1965), 71.
11. James Coates (New York: Hill and Wang, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1987),
181; Gossett, 192. [Back] 12. Gossett, 259-60.
13. Ibid., 260.
14. Coates, 33-36.
15. Ibid., 93.
16. James Ridgeway, Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations,
Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture(New York: Thunder's Mouth Press,
17. George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of
the Third Reich (New York: Schocken Books, 1981), 75, 116, 277.
18. Pete Peters, A Biblical Look at the Farm Problems (cassette 161) (La
Porte, CO: Scriptures for America, n.d.).
19. Frank H. Littell, "Church Struggle and the Holocaust," in The German
Church Struggle and the Holocaust, ed. Frank H. Littell and Hubert G. Locke
(Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1974), 25-26.
20. One excellent reference for the subject of Anglo-Israelism is Walter R.
Martin's The Kingdom of the Cults, ch. 12 (Bethany, revised and expanded
edition, 1985). Also see, J.K. Van Baalen, The Chaos of Cults: A Study in
Present-Day Isms, ch. 9 (Eerdmans, 1967), and Anton Darms, The Delusion of
British-Israelism (Loizeaux Brothers, Bible Truth Depot, n.d.), written before
the establishment of the State of Israel. This latter book is written from a
21. Derek Kidner, Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary, Old Testament
Commentaries, ed. D.J. Wisemam (Downer Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1989),
22. Wilhelm Niemller, "The Niemller Archives," in Littell and Locke, 55.
Larson, Viola. "Identity: A 'Christian' Religion for White Racists"
Christian Research Journal, Fall 1992, p. 20
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